Science is a peculiar thing. The more you know of it, the more you know that you don’t know. As a university teacher, I, off course, highly regard science. I was watching Dumbo the Movie and one particular line stroke me: “if you show no interest, you don’t deserve to know”. University teaching is not merely a transfer of knowledge, but rather a co-production of it. I will not pretend that I know everything and students do as I say, nor should they elevate me to such a position.
The covid-19 pandemic has brought the “new normal” to our everyday life. Spring breaks and the pandemic shows no evidence of slowing down. Worry looms that the pandemic will stay until the scorching dry season (in Indonesia, the temperature can reach to 38.8-degree Celsius). Despite the myth that warm weather will slow down the virus, heat will bring several problems to the transmission of coronavirus, particularly related to the availability of water.
Ketika saya masih kecil, saya tinggal di sebuah rumah dinas di daerah perbatasan antara Lembang dan Bandung. Kami dulu sering sekali mengalami kesulitan air. Di malam hari, ayah saya membawa kami sekeluarga -bersama ibu dan adik saya yang masih balita, berkendara sambil membawa jerigen dengan mobil bak terbuka untuk mengambil air di reservoir PDAM. Ayah dan ibu saya lalu mengisi jerigen-jerigen kami dengan air, cukup untuk persediaan selama 3 hari sampai kami harus kembali lagi. Kami memang punya sambungan pipa PDAM, tapi seringkali airnya mati sehingga satu-satunya cara untuk mendapatkan air adalah dengan mengambilnya sendiri dengan jerigen.
Pandemi COVID-19 telah membawa begitu banyak akibat setiap aspek kehidupan, termasuk terhadap isu gender. Di seluruh dunia, secara rata-rata, tingkat morbiditas dan mortalitas COVID-19 pada pria lebih tinggi dibandingkan pada wanita. Namun hal ini tidak berlaku umum. Di Italia misalnya, data dari VOX CEPR Policy Portal menunjukkan pria lebih rentan terhadap COVID-19 dibandingkan dengan wanita. Namun jika data COVID-19 dibagi berdasarkan usia, maka wanita usia 20-49 lebih rentan terhadap penyakit tersebut. Baru pada usia di 50 laki-laki lebih rentan dibandingkan wanita. Sebanyak 54,04% pasien positif adalah laki-laki. Jika dibagi berdasarkan usia, maka distribusi pasien COVID-19 positif paling besar terdapat pada usia 40 ke atas, yaitu sebesar 42.7% untuk wanita, dan 47.1% untuk pria2. Namun, berdasarkan usia, wanita dan anak perempuan usia 6-39 tahun lebih rentan terkena COVID-19. Baru pada usia 40 ke atas, pria lebih banyak menderita covid-19 dibandingkan wanita.
“The world population will hit 10 billion. How will we feed everyone? How will we provide enough water for everyone?” The students of the Environmental Health Course, class 2018, Study Program of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, held a mock-up of a high-level panel United Nations debate. The students are the members of the United Nations High-Level Panel on Global Sustainability. The students act as delegates from low-, middle-, and high-income countries, standing on the two opposites: the Wizards and the Prophets.
If you live in North American and European countries, getting water for drinking is as easy as open the faucet in your own home. But such a thing is a luxury for many people in the developing countries. Defining “access” to water supply is often problematic as there are many layers behind the simple word. Physical access to water often refers to the classification of the WHO and UNICEF’s Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) ‒the United Nations’ mechanism to monitor progress in the water and sanitation sector. The JMP classifies water supply sources into piped water in premises, other improved sources (i.e., protected dug well, borehole, protected spring, and rainwater harvesting), and unimproved sources (i.e., unprotected dug well, unprotected spring, bottled water, and water from vendors). Having access to water means having some types of “improved” water sources at home. “Access level” is often measured by the percentage of the population using improved drinking-water sources.
Having gained its popularity in the last decades, the study of institutions encompasses a wide-range of disciplines: sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics, and politics. Dominating political science in the early 20th centuries, the old institutionalisms focus on formal institutions such as government body and the state. Later, the seminal work of Meyer & Rowan (1977) in organization studies, and latter DiMaggio & Powell (1983), shifted the way institutional analyses are conducted; and gave rise to the New Institutional Economics (NIE) in the following decade.
The financial investment for water supply has increased gradually since the United Nation’s water decades on the 80’s. It gained its momentum after the declaration of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), particularly Target 7c: to halve the population without improved drinking water; the commitments translated into the numbers of domestic and foreign aids are rising in meeting 2015 target, as well as embracing post-2015 water development agenda. Nevertheless, the injustice of water poverty and the high number of water-related diarrhea and its associated impacts in children remain; a signal of collective failure in achieving development outcomes from water supply delivery. It therefore putting into question the effectiveness of traditional modes of delivery: the focus on hardware, that is expanding physical access, rather than the software, that is targetting the instutional aspects, of water supply provision.